On the twenty seventh of March the World day of theater is celebrated. "Round the world" offers you a travel to the world of Ancient Greek theater where the scenic traditions honored still arose.
Amphitheater ruins in Pompeii
Ethnographic and historical observations show that it is possible to refer the actions connected with animism and magic to first "theatrical performances". Among primitive people ceremonial games have been widespread, and at all primitiveness of game ceremonies, such as crying on the fallen hunter, the drowned fisher, dancings by which met spring, in them it is already possible to notice sprouts of future action which will be called theatrical subsequently.
And whether you thought sometime what means a word "theater"? It, that is the word qeatron (on Ancient Greek), meets in different values. He designates the space or a part of the building occupied by the audience of drama or other show, a meeting of the audience, at last, all building which intended for drama or other representations. So, representations in Ancient Greece, at the time of Antiquity, were arranged under the open sky. Places for the audience have been located a semicircle, ledges and divided by passes — exactly as at modern stadiums. These places after some time began to call an amphitheater.
Similar masks were put on by actors during representations that their "emotions" were visible from the latest ranks.
The Greek theater from the verb "teaomay" — "I watch", different from theater in modern understanding, I consisted of three parts: places for the audience, an orkhestra and скенэ, a tent or wooden constructions where actors changed clothes and were stored a requisite and scenery.
Actors and chorus acted on an orkhestra — the stamped platform at the bottom of an amphitheater. Behind an orkhestra it was put скенэ — a so-called tent which left the actor; originally she replaced with herself any scenery. In the second half of the 4th and 3rd centuries BC not only in Athens, but also in other cities began to build low extensions on columns before скенэ, processed in the form of semi-columns — proskeniya which connected with скенэ special wooden overlapping. It has entered theatrical use as "the place from which speak", or a logeyona.
Also cars as supportive applications on the action course have begun to be used actively. The most interesting car — for a part of gods appearing kind from above from air. After deus ex machina (from armor. — "god from the car") will begin to designate an unexpected outcome of this or that situation with attraction of the external, earlier not operating in her factor. There were also devices which created visibility of appearance of the actor from under the earth: they were called rises or infernal ladders.
The theater in Ancient Greece arises from Dionysus's celebrations — god of fertility. Great Dionysius — these national celebrations so were called — were celebrated in a month by Elafebolione of the Athenian lunar calendar, that is in March. During the celebration I sang chorus of boys, people drank wine, masked appeared: Dionysus's suite — bacchantes, satires, silena.
The next two days there was a competition of choruses at Dionysus's altar in which the adults representing ten Athenian territorial and patrimonial districts sang.
At last, for the fourth day of a holiday drama competitions began.
Competitions of playwrights went from rising and till the sunset two days. It was the most significant part of celebration Great Dionysius. It was considered as the process culmination.
Aristotle reports that from dithyrambs, that is from the songs glorifying Dionysus there was the Greek tragedy. The first tragedies appear in Athens in the 6th century BC. According to Aristotle, the tragedy "has come by changes from satirical representation", that is dramas of satir. It is considered that the foundation for a tragic genre was laid by the poet Arion living on the island of Lesbos. Ovidy admired his compositions, but from them hasn't reached us a line. Comedies happen "from initiators of phallic songs". The word "comedy" is translated from Greek as "the song of space" — in those days phallic processions masked on a harvest holiday so were called.
Characters and acts "the best people, than nowadays", according to Aristotle, the author of the theoretical treatise about the drama under the name "Poetics" have been reflected in plays by antique authors. Plots of tragedies were borrowed from the remote past, even mythical, comedies were the acute social, topical, deriding defects of citizens — in particular, political figures.
Selection of plays was carried out by the first archons, that is the highest officials in Ancient Greek policies. Along with granting to the author the right to participate in a competition he was given chorus under the direction of a horeg who has been obliged to prepare him for the forthcoming performance. Both the actor protagonist, and the poet author, as well as all other participants of performances, had to belong to number of full Athenian citizens. Slaves and also women were forbidden to participate in representation. Among actors there was a division too: comedy never participated in tragic statements, and tragic — in comedy.
That about three tragedians and three comedians participated in competitions the audience had to look on 15 plays for two days — 9 tragedies, 3 dramas and 3 comedies. Such non-stop has been caused also by the fact that in antique plays the law of three unities was observed: places, time and action, and therefore it was impossible just to interrupt representation.
Blossoming of the Athenian dramatic art is connected with names of Sophocles, Euripedes, Eskhila, Aristophanes. Eskhil is the senior poet. You for certain know his play "Prometheus Chained". He has begun to put the works in 25 years, but recognition and the first success have come to him only in 40. He has left behind, according to one data, about 72 plays, on others — 90 drama works, 13 times receiving the first place at the Athenian competitions. The younger contemporary Eskhila — Sophocles, is famous for plays "Tsar Oedipus" and "Antigone". Euripedes, loud glory to which the tragedy "Medea" has brought became the ancestor of the psychological drama on the Ancient Greek stage. Aristophanes — one of the most great poets writing comedies. To him there were as early as no full twenty years when he has begun to write and put the first plays (having outstripped, thus, Eskhila). The most famous comedies of his authorship which have reached us and even entering the program at some schools — "Clouds" and "Frogs".
For ancient Greeks of representation were both church services, and political arena, and a competition. All dramaturgic works have been written in verses, attic language which was considered as the classical sample of language in Ancient Greece which was obsolete now.
The Ancient Greek theater has exerted impact on all times, up to in what we live. A huge number of the plots undergoing various metamorphoses today has been thought up by those playwrights. Not casually now we call subjects of Ancient Greek tragedies and comedies "eternal". The moral and philosophical problems rising on the stage of ancient theater remain so important for us, as well as for people of antiquity.