The order and stability were appreciated always, and in all centuries society tried to protect transfer of the Supreme power from "not format". But sometimes nevertheless unexpected applicants got the top post.
Contrary to a floor
Granite sphinx with the person Hatshepsut. The 15th century BC.
"Here my heart rushes about there and back, thinking that people will tell, those that will see the monuments created by me years later" — such is an inscription on behalf of the female Pharaoh Hatshepsut on one of the obelisks erected in the years of her reign. In Ancient Egypt the Supreme power was delegated to male successors. However several women who managed to govern officially in the status of the Pharaoh, but not regentsh at the tsar-child, and Hatshepsut from them the best-known are known. The daughter of the aggressive Pharaoh Tutmos I, she on custom of the Egyptian ruling house became the wife of the stepbrother, Tutmos II. After his death Hatshepsut operated Egypt at the juvenile stepson Tutmos of III and in several years has officially proclaimed herself the Pharaoh with all titles and honors put to the tsar who was considered by the deity. So in Egypt there were two Pharaohs. She began to be represented as the tsar: with a male torso and a false beard, in a special headdress. According to researchers, in twenty years' reign of Hatshepsut the country prospered. After a while after the death of the ruler monuments have been destroyed by her and her name is excluded from lists of Pharaohs. The reasons of it are definitely not known, but, perhaps, successors didn't want that the successful precedent of stay of the woman was in power remembered.
Contrary to lack of leadership skills
"Is sillier than my Claudius" — mother of future emperor when she was irritated by someone's dullness said. The family considered the shy, sickly slowcoach Tiberiya of Claudius Neron Germanik incapable of affairs, nearly feeble-minded. Because of it in young years he has kept from policy, indulging in alcoholism and the composition of treatises in country possession. s nephew Kaligula, having become the emperor, I have brought closer Claudius to the yard, but at the same time constantly I humiliated the uncle. When Kaligula was killed by conspirators as the ancient Roman author Svetony wrote, Claudius in fear has taken refuge in one of rooms of the palace behind a curtain. "Some soldier running by has seen his legs, has wanted to check who hides there, has recognized him, has pulled out and when that in fear has fallen down to his feet, welcomed him the emperor and has taken away to the companions". Next day Claudius has taken the oath from the Praetorian Guard. The governor he was active, reformed the legislation, has created branched officialdom. At this emperor several new provinces have been attached.
Contrary to a mutilation
In the medieval world was considered that the person with an obvious mutilation can't be head of state. One of the best-known governors in the history of the Venetian republic Enrico Dandolo was chosen as the doge at the age of 84 years though he grew blind. There are several versions how and when this aristocrat has lost sight. s contemporary Geoffroi de Villardoin wrote that owing to blow in the head. According to the Novgorod chronicle and the Venetian chronicle, the Byzantine emperor when Dandolo was the ambassador in Constantinople has ordered to blind future doge a piece of glass. However the doge, according to the chronicler Gunter Perisski, "perfectly compensated a corporal blindness strength of mind and wisdom". When Dandolo was for 90, he has taken part in the Fourth crusade at the head of the Venetian fleet. During storm of Constantinople by crusaders the heroic aged man, according to Villarduen, has ordered confidants to the first to put him ashore with the Venetian banner of Saint Mark, having set an example of courage to compatriots.
Contrary to arrangements with elite
In due time Peter I has given Anna, the daughter of the elder brother Ivan, for the duke Kurland Friedrich-Wilhelm. Having left after the wedding to the husband's capital of Mitava, the tsarevna has arrived there already the widow: the young spouse has caught a cold and has died on the way. In Russia have remembered Anna Ioannovna 19 years later when in 1730 the young sovereign Peter II and influential court has died childless, without wishing to lose the power, began to look for deceased the compliant successor. Anna was invited to the kingdom provided that she will sign "standards" on which powers of the empress have been limited in favor of the Supreme Privy Council. Without approval of eight courtiers sitting at it the empress had no right to dispose of treasury, to carry out foreign policy, to issue laws, etc. and if violated the arrangement, then lost a throne. Anna Ioannovna has signed "standards", has arrived, and then, having quickly secured with support of guard, during a solemn lunch has theatrically exclaimed: "How, unless points which you to me have brought in Mitava have been made not at the request of the whole people?!", I have torn the document and I declared myself the autocratic ruler. Verkhovnika haven't decided to counteract it, Anna has been crowned, and Council is abolished.
Contrary to civilization distinctions
Before the Austrian subject Moritz Benyovszky has headed an expedition to Madagascar, he has managed to participate in a revolt of the Polish shlyakhta against the accruing Russian influence in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, to appear for it in exile on Kamchatka, to organize a revolt and to run from there by the seized state ship "Saint Peter". Through the half-world Benyovszky has reached Paris and has persuaded the French authorities to finance the basis of a trade trading station on Madagascar. Having got on the island, the adventurer has gradually convinced elders of tribes that the sort from the local leader whose daughter was kidnapped conducts and have sold in slavery, and they have elected him the Supreme governor. Possibly, position of the king of Madagascar was fragile as when ranks of colonists have thinned, and the French commission has seen very modest results of an expedition, Benyovszky has returned to Europe. In 1885-1886 he has undertaken one more expedition on the island, already on the American money. There Benyovszky has died in a skirmish with the French troops.
Contrary to probability theory
Alexandrina Victoria, the only child of prince Eduard who was the fourth son of the English king George III at the time of the birth in 1819 was registered as a heel in turn of a succession to the throne. In a year her father has died, and the girl became the fourth, but chances of a crown remained insignificant: eldest sons of the king still could have lawful children. However the first brother who has succeeded to the throne as George IV has died in 1830, without having left either the son, or the daughter, the second has died childless even earlier. The third, crowned as William IV, had ten illegal offsprings, and two daughters born in marriage have died in infancy. On June 20, 1837 Victoria remembered so: "At six in the morning I was woken by mother and has told that the archbishop Canterbury and lord Coningham here and wish to see me. I have got out of bed and one has gone to a drawing room (in a dressing gown), and I have met them. Then lord Coningham has told me that my poor uncle, the king, isn't present any more that he has left this world now in the morning 13 minutes of the third and, therefore, I am a queen". Her long board has given the name to the whole era in the history of Britain — Victorian.
Contrary to racial prejudices
The young leader бамангвато, the largest tribe in the British protectorate Bechuanaland in Africa, at insistance of family has gone to study the right to England. There he married the English girl Ruth Williams. The family and confidants were dissatisfied, and then because of this wedding the international scandal has burst. The government of the next Southern African Union pursuing tough racist policy in favor of white has stated to the mother country a protest against a top-level mixed marriage. The British authorities didn't want to complicate the relations with the dominion — a source of gold and uranium. To Seretsa Khama five years didn't allow to return home from England. In 1956 to him have allowed to move to Bechuanaland with the wife and children as to the individual. The former leader has created the most influential political party in the country. In 1966 Bechuanaland became the independent state of Botswana, and Seretse Khama has been elected him the first president. The current president Ian Khama is the son to Seretsa and Ruth.
Contrary to the standard procedure of election
Taking the oath in the White House, Gerald Ford has told: "I accept presidential powers in force majeure what were endured never before by the American people". s predecessor Richard Nixon has retired under the threat of an impeachment because of Uotergeytsky crisis. The republican president Nixon was accused of the organization of shadowing political rivals and attempts to interfere with legal investigation of illegal penetration of burglars into the headquarters of Democratic party in Watergate hotel. If the post of the head of the USA was released ahead of schedule, it was occupied by the vice-president who at that moment was Gerald Ford. In a usual situation of the vice-president choose the same as the head of state, however to Ford and this position has got some other way earlier. When the previous vice-president Spiro Agnew has resigned authority because of corruption scandal, Ford from approval of the congress was appointed, according to the 25th amendment to the Constitution, by the president Nixon. Thus, Gerald Ford was the only American president who has consistently held both top posts in the state, without having won public elections.