The history is full of big names. Over time the certain image which is diligently created in literature or cinema has begun to correspond to each of them. Thanks to efforts of scientists-anthropologists and development of modern technologies there was an opportunity to learn how actually familiar characters looked all.
Here is the most discouraging examples.
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Modern researchers claim that the little-known "Portrait of the musician" of Leonardo da Vinci's brush is... self-portrait. Thanks to him we for the first time can see the most great thinker of Renaissance in image not grown wise for years of the aged man, but young man at the age of 33 years. s appearance in a picture completely matches the description of historians who claim that da Vinci was good himself, is in proportion difficult, with a graceful and attractive face.
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From antique statues and screens of TVs watches a majestic and intense face of one of the most famous governors of Ancient Rome at us. It is no wonder that most of sculptors and biographers frankly flattered Caesar, representing or describing his appearance. Here only one view of a sculpture from the museum Torlonia — the posthumous portrait of the governor — is enough to understand, our ideas of Caesar's appearance are how far from reality.
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For the life we faced at least two images of Aristotle: the first — the distinguished philosopher from pages of school textbooks, the second — the gray-haired mentor of Alexander the Great performed by Anthony Hopkins. As it has appeared, both of our ideas of the famous philosopher are far from reality. According to the Greek biographers, Aristotle suffered from defects of the speech, was "short-legged, with small eyes, wore elegant clothes and a cut beard".
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Not so long ago British historian and the botanist Mark Griffiths has announced sensational discovery which he had made, studying the book on The Herball botany published at the end of the 16th century. One of four figures represented on the title page, according to the scientist, is a portrait of the world famous playwright William Shakespeare. This small ink sketch not only only lifetime image of the writer, but also powerful confirmation of the fact of his existence.
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In real life a prototype of the general Maksimus from the movie "Gladiator" Guy Yuli Ver Maksimin Frakiyets was allocated with the physical force and enormous growth, was extremely cruel and haughty. If in the movie his history has ended with a sentimental scene on sand of the gladiatorial arena, then in reality it terminates on a throne in a rank of the first of "the soldier's emperor".
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In real life the king George VI, the father of the current queen of Great Britain Elizabeth II, wasn't such diffident and melancholic, as shown in the movie "The King Speaks". On the contrary, he served on the fleet and in aircraft and when over London bombs have begun to whistle, has flatly refused evacuation. The appearance George VI could contend even with the recognized Hollywood handsome Colin Firth: high, tightened, with regular features, he looked the true monarch not only on a photo, but also in life.
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Appearance of the author of heliocentric system of the world we could judge long time according to only several images of Copernicus made in his young years. Only in 2005 his remains have been found during excavation in a cathedral of the city of Fromborka and solemnly reburied. And before it reconstruction of appearance of Copernicus shortly before death has been made experts of the Central laboratory of criminalistics of the Polish police. The broken nose and a scar over an eyebrow say to us that life of the famous scientist was far more interesting, than we thought earlier.
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Numerous researches and disputes around almost untouched tomb of the Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun have shed light and on his appearance. Today we can precisely claim that Tutankhamun wasn't a hand-written handsome, the dazzling son of god of the Sun what he is represented by a funeral mask. According to scientists, the Pharaoh had a sickly and disproportionate constitution as suffered from genetic diseases. Besides, he probably had malaria that has led to early death: Tutankhamun has died, without having reached age of 20 years.
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"If you don't love me any more, then I have nothing to do on the earth" — Napoleon Bonaparte wrote the incomparable muse. It is no wonder that even after 40 years artists wrote the first lady of France in an image of the pink-checked brunette with soft features. Here only, if to look narrowly at the portraits made to Napoleon's introduction on a throne it is possible to see absolutely other woman — the ordinary Frenchwoman of average years. Especially brightly it is visible in Andrea Appiani's works made in different years.
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The queen Nefertiti was called "perfect". Her face was represented on walls of temples as an embodiment of a cult of the new one God of Aton. In 2003 reconstruction of lifetime shape of a mummy of Younger Lady found in 1898 has been made. Was declared that she is very similar to Nefertiti's bust. By results of scanning, having spent more than 500 hours, the French paleokhudozhnitsa and the sculptor Elisabeth Deynes has recreated her shape. There was immediately a lot of disputes: the appearance of the famous queen was infinitely far from our representations.
Scientists-anthropologists and historians make every day huge work in attempts to restore events of the last days, it is worth being mistaken once — and not to change the developed opinion any more. And what you know examples when our representations and reality radically differ?
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